Sometimes you may have to write about a graph in the future.
When you are presented with a line graph to analyze (or a bar graph if it is over time) you should always look carefully to check what time frame is being referred to.
If you get the time frame wrong, this could have a very negative impact on your score as a lot of the information will then be presented incorrectly.
Take a look at the line graph below.
As you will see, it runs from 2012 until 2022.
In some graphs you may be given a time frame that includes the past and the future (or possibly only the future). In this case you need to be very careful that you are using the past tense when appropriate and the future tense when appropriate.
These are some common phrases you can use to discuss a graph in the future:
Now take a look at the line graph and the model answer.
In order to see clearly how the past and future time frames have been used, the past is in red, and the future is in green.
The line graph illustrates the financial position of a New Zealand local authority from 2012 to 2022. It is measured in millions of New Zealand dollars. Overall, it can be seen that while rates revenue and user charges are predicted to increase over the period, borrowings and grants and subsidies will remain much lower.
Rates revenues and user charges will follow a very similar pattern over the time frame. Rates revenue stood at just under 1.5 billion in 2012, which was the highest of the four criteria. Though they remained stable until 2013, they are expected to climb to approximately 2.4 billion dollars in 2022. Like rates revenues, use charges are predicted to continuously increase. They began the period at 1 billion and will stand at twice this level by 2022.
Borrowings, on the other hand, are expected to show considerable fluctuation. Although having initially increased, they will drop to a low of 600 million in 2016, before reaching a peak of just under 1.5 billion in 2020. Borrowings will finish the period at around the same level that they began. Grant and subsidies were the lowest of the four, at under 500 million in 2012. Despite moving up to exceed borrowing briefly in 2016, this low level will continue until 2022.
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How to Write an IELTS Writing Task 1
Describing a Graph Over Time
Describing an IELTS Pie Chart
Describing an IELTS Process
Describing two graphs together
Common Language of Change
Common Language to Compare and Contrast
A Common Mistake
Organizing your answer
Describing the future
Organising an IELTS Line Graph
Opening and Closing a Letter